NCLE 2019

"Remapping National Literature in the 21st Century Education Landscape"


NCLE 2019


November 21-23, 2019


Philippine Normal University

Taft Ave., Manila

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Marvin Dominic B. Buena

University of the East-Caloocan Campus




This study aims to establish the possibility of literary criticism as a major student output to exhibit literary appreciation in the course, 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World. In the Philippine K-12 Basic Education Curriculum, Creative Writing necessitates the students to write literary works while Creative Nonfiction demands them to write creative nonfiction pieces. Unlike the other two literature courses, 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World does not have any clear and definite output of measuring and evaluating literary appreciation. The current curriculum does have relevant competencies and assessment towards study and appreciation of the literature, but this does mean that the students were able to manifest literary appreciation? This is the question that this paper aims to find out. In this study, the University of the East-Caloocan Campus Grade 12 students will make a formalist review of the poem, “Bowl Limn Yeah” by Paolo Manalo, a 21st century Carlos Palanca winning Poetry. Using Donelson and Nilsen (2009)’s Seven Stages of Literary Criticism, the students’ paper will be analyzed using corpus and content analysis. After which, the result of the analysis will be discussed with three literature course experts to determine whether the students were able to manifest literary appreciation as the main evaluative indicator of the course.


Keywords: literary appreciation, literary criticism, literature assessment, 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World





Melvin L. Viaña

Laiya National High School




            Mass media depictions of the Filipino identity had often been nativist, a purist representation of the “Filipino” that hearkens back and tries to realize an irredeemable and untainted past. Recent debates on the Filipino identity, however, have shown a much more complex picture of the dynamics of identity. This study employed postcolonialism to analyse three contemporary speculative fictions and reveal how their authors participate in the unceasing negotiations of what or how the Filipino should be. As an exercise on critical discourse analysis, it revealed the ideological suggestions made by/in the text. Analysis revealed that authors of speculative fiction employ mythopoeia in pushing ideological suggestions for understanding the term Filipino. Thus, they use deities from local folklores and precolonial belief systems to signify the themes they were advocating. R. Falgui’s “The Alipin’s Tale” blends history and mythology in recreating the Battle of Mactan to push for feminist ideals; D.F. Alfar’s “A Door Opens: The Beginning of the Fall of the Ispancialo-in-Hinirang” tells of an imaginary uprising that urges readers to accept and fight for the nation whose unity was born out of colonization; and Eliza Victoria’s “Ana’s Little Pawnshop on Makiling St.” situates local deities in the contemporary world to highlight and incise on the heartlessness of contemporary capitalism. These findings helped in crafting three sample lesson guides for the 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World subject of the senior high school.


Keywords: postcolonialism, mythopoeia, speculative fiction



The What in Wattpad: Pag-uungkat ng Social Reality sa Fiction Story

Literature and Society


Kim Kimberly Derla

University of the Philippines




Ang Wattpad ay isang website at komunidad kung saan maaaring makapagbasa at makapagsulat ng kwento. Ang mga manunulat ay malayang maglagay ng kanilang obra. Gayundin naman, ang mga mambabasa ay malayang magbasa ng kanilang napiling kwento. Naging popular ang Wattpad noong 2010 dahil sa tipikal at pang-masang kwento na nakapaloob dito na siyang madaling unawain ng mga mambabasa. Dahil dito, umusbong ang kasikatan ng Wattpad kasabay ng paglilimbag ng mga kwento mula dito. Naging best seller rin ang ilan sa mga ito. Nagkaroon ng pelikula, TV series, at iba pang bersyon ang kwentong dati’y hanggang website lamang. Ngayon ay mas dumarami pa ang mambabasa nito na umabot pa sa higit dalawampung milyon sa buong mundo. Subalit, kasabay ng pag-usbong ng Wattpad ay ang responsibilidad na inaasahan mula sa manunulat dito. Sa isang panayam kay Jun Cruz Reyes, sinabi niya na kailangang mag-mature ang mga manunulat dito. Sinabi rin ni Eros Atalia na nawa ay magkaroon ng mas mataas na standards ang mga kabataang nangangarap maging isang ganap na manunulat.  Sa papel na ito, hihimayin ang blurb ng mga piling kwento mula sa Wattpad. Ang genre ay hinggil sa mga aklat na teen at adult fiction na nailathala ng Summit Media. Isasalaysay sa papel na ito kung paanong naapektuhan ng panlipunang isyu ang mga akdang nailimbag mula sa Wattpad. Ang mga tema gaya ng fixed marriage, teenage pregnancy, K-12 education reform, lifestyle, teknolohiya, at American dream ay tunay ngang may presensya sa mga akdang nailimbag at masasabing ang mga akda ay salamin ng kasalukuyang kultura kung kailan ito nailimbag. Ang papel na ito ay pagpapatibay sa popular na kulturang naisali sa mga akdang pampanitikan ng mga kabataan. 



Lerma V. Regalario

San Juan National high School 

City of Antipolo Institute of Technology




The main aim of this study is to create an instructional portfolio in teaching the course 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World for Senior High School students. This study was conducted at San Juan National High School during the second quarter of School Year 2019-2020, utilizing one group quasi-experimental design. Twenty (20) Grade 11-General Academic Strand students were chosen as study participants exposed to the created instructional portfolio during the four-week treatment period. The study assessed the general language competencies and literary appreciation of the study participants through the pretest and posttest results. Teachers from City Schools Division of Antipolo served as experts to validate the pedagogical soundness and acceptability of the instructional portfolio in terms of objectives, content, usefulness, language and style, and organization and presentation. The data were collected, tabulated and interpreted with the use of appropriate statistical treatment.  Frequency and percentage, mean, standard deviation and T-test were used to determine the level of performance of the respondents on the pretest and posttest and the significant difference of the scores before and after using the instructional portfolio. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant increase on the performance of the respondents exposed to the instructional portfolio. The experts highly accepted the IP2CL in terms of objectives, content, usefulness, language and style and organization and presentation. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the developed instructional portfolio is an effective instructional material that successfully captured the attention, increased the motivation, and enhanced the learning experience, thus, improved the performance of the learners.


Keywords: Instructional portfolio, 21st Century Literature, quasi-experimental design




Bethany Marie Cabantac-Lumabi

Far Eastern University, Manila




The lexical aspect of the homosexual speech became the interest of several international and local researchers. Gay language on Facebook is an unexplored subject in research in the Philippines and it connotes an interesting identity for non-gay users of Facebook. Through content analysis of Facebook posts as guided by social constructive approach to identity and an online survey, it revealed that the principal reason for non-gay Facebook users who gayspeak online is to inject humor and fun to online discourse. Apparently, the gay language became more popular among the local digital natives who are often online on Facebook, and this time it is no longer restricted among homosexuals and their community. All the same, homosexuals have introduced their language as a humorous and entertaining spoken expression that the non-gay community is adopting and utilizing. The constructive reaction of the Facebook network threads the use of gay language and later on develops similar online social identity of gayspeaking as presented in the results of this study. Moreover, majority of the respondents agree that the gay language has influenced the social identity of non-gay online users for they sound like real gays talking when they gayspeak on Facebook. This study proves that gay language is not about being homosexual anymore because online social community is no longer gendered. Apparently, the delightful and funny remark on gay language among its users is also a notable social character popular among Filipinos.


Keywords: gay language on Facebook, gay speaking, constructing identity, social identity







Ma. Corazon R. Tatad

Bohol Island State University Main Campus




            Literature as a reflection of the society is widely acknowledged fact. It portrays human life and action through the characters. Honoring the role of literature as mirror of the social character, this paper analyzes the male characters in the works of Francisco Sionil Jose, a Filipino national artist. Five short stories are subjected to close reading and content analysis. Employing Cultural Criticism as lens, this study examines: portrayal of Filipino male characters, character delineation of the Filipino behavioural and cultural values, and the use of symbolism. As basis for analysis, this paper uses three value themes: social acceptance, social mobility, and economic security highlighted in the work of Frank Lynch entitled Four Readings on Philippine Values, the major reference in this study. This paper finds that the author incarnates characters who are brave, freedom seeker, source of wisdom and strength, advocate of change, and possessing positive relational traits. However, a character portrayed as crass money maker, bribe-giver, dismissive of his own Filipino culture, and detesting his own country and people is also personified in the story. This research concludes that valuing art as imitation, F. Sionil Jose created real-life characters. Moreover, the male characters also delineate the Filipino behavioural and cultural values revealing that Smooth Interpersonal Relations (SIR), hiya, and use of go-between as intermediate values of social acceptance are observed in the story. Social mobility and economic security are also apparent values the characters possess which are likely the same goal of most Filipinos, uplifting their social class and status. Furthermore, the use of symbolism enhances the delineation of the Filipino men characters and providing a much deeper and more significant character representation. Based on the findings, this paper mainly recommends postcolonial and Marxist reading of the selected stories to deeply tackle cultural, political, and economic issues.


Keywords: short stories, Cultural Criticism, behavioural values, cultural values





Ang Papel at Espasyo ng Independent Publishing sa Pilipinas sa Panahon ng Fake News at Tokhang


Gerome Nicolas Dela Peña

Our Lady of Fatima University




Mula pa noon hanggang ngayon, nananatiling isang progresibong espasyo at lunsaran ang mga akdang pampanitikan ng realismong nagaganap sa lipunan. Marami na ang mga akdang nailabas sa merkado, mga institusyong pang-edukasyon, book fairs and events, mainstream bookstores, at iba pa, subalit nananatiling buhay ang independent o self-publishing: isang antas ng produksiyong pampanitikan na hindi na kinakailangan pa ng tradisyonal at kumbensiyonal na proseso ng paglilimbag at paglalathala. Layunin ng papel-pananaliksik na ito na kritikal na suriin, sipatin, at basahin ang progresibo at mapagpalayang papel at espasyo ng independent publishing o self-publishing, lalo na sa panahon ng mas umiigting na kontradiksyon sa isang bayang demokratiko gaya ng Pilipinas (walang habas na tokhangan, paglaganap ng fake news, pananaig ng post-truth, at iba pa). Nilalayong komprehensibong matalakay rin dito ang mga kultural at politikal na ambag ng BLTX (Better Living Through Xeroxography), Komikon, High Chair, KM64, at iba pang grupo at indibiduwal na patuloy na nagsusulong ng makabuluhang panlipunang pagbabago gamit ang wika, sining, at panitikan.


Mga Susing Salita: independent publishing, self-publishing, fake news, tokhang





Allan Paul F. Catena

Occidental Mindoro State College

Gerome Nicolas Dela Pena

Our Lady of Fatima University – Antipolo Campus




Ang nobela ay isang malawak at malalim na lunang hinabi ng mga samu't-saring simbolikong interaksiyon ng tao sa kanyang lipunan. Kadalasa'y kinukulayan ito ng mga masisiglang kulay na siyang nagpapasinta ng masasayang bahagi ng buhay. Bagama't tipikal na kulay na itim ang siyang nagpaparamdam ng karimlan at kamatayan. Ngunit sa Nobelang, Lila: Ang Kulay ng Pamamaalam, ay tila ang kulay na lila ay siyang nagbubukas sa mas matingkad na karimlan at/o kamatayan. Sa pagbabasa dito, kinikilala ang paglampas ng kulay lila sa pananagisag sa sosyo-kultural na konstruksiyon at interpretasiyon. Nasipat ang iba't-ibang pagpapakuhulugan at konteksto ng nobela sa kulay lila na siyang bahagi ng tradisyon, paniniwala, agham, sining, at kaanyusang panlipunan. Sa paglampas ng kulay lila ay matutunghayan ang tagumpay ng kamatayan.


Mga Susing Salita:: lila, kamatayan, pamamaalam





Ionell Jay R. Terogo

(with Jhin C. Caballero, Mabel Shaira P. Calaban,

Lovely Mae U. Coca, & Ma. Azalea Candyd B. Redoble)

University of San Jose – Recoletos College of Education, Cebu City





This research aimed at examining the stylistic devices, expressive means, and functional styles contained in Internet memes and assess their features which are aligned in the particular grade level in the K-12 curriculum. Through the analysis of such memes, which people find empty and irrelevant, these new ways of communication can become accessible to academic pursuits especially when they are aligned to the English competencies. The study is found on theories by Lewis’ General Semantics, Crystal and Davy’s Investigating English Approach, and Tarantova’s Functional Styles. The study utilized a qualitative research design using content analysis method. The researchers gathered classified Internet memes on a specific date and time from a popular social media page and evaluated their features on a stylistic perspective. The genres of memes which were collected were photoshop memes, Rage comics, and stock character macros. The results showed that most of the Internet memes collected consist of distinguished stylistic features for each genre of Internet memes such as proximity and affinity in stylistic devices for all memes, verbal expression in expressive means for all memes, and evaluative in functional means for all memes except photoshop memes. Consequently, the studied memes are mostly aligned in the seventh-grade lessons under Vocabulary Development and Literature competencies and therefore can be used for teaching English in the 21st century.


Keywords: internet memes, stylistics, semantics, functional styles









Isaiah F. Garcia, LPT, MA

St. Stephen’s High School Manila and UST Department of Literature




The educational reforms in the basic education and collegiate levels are reflective not only of the changing landscapes in the pedagogical sciences but also in the Liberal Arts. These radical changes opened numerous possibilities in enhancing the content knowledge of the literature teacher, as well as his/her capacity as a literary and cultural critic. These reforms and changes invite the teacher to revisit the notions of literature within and outside its usual contexts. In addition to the traditional forms and modes of literature, the late 20th century (and 21st century) saw the emergence of new forms of narratives and storytelling media that a huge majority of young people (read: students) consume on a regular basis. Of the many texts in the postmodern age, it is the Japanese anime that interests this paper. This presentation argues for the place of the anime in the Literature classroom, not only as a springboard for engaging students, but also as a material that can be analyzed, evaluated, and interpreted as a literary- cultural text. This is done by connecting the “cultural/ critical turn” in the field of Literary and Cultural Studies with the democratization of the canon and canonical forms, and how the said turn led to the opening of the literary establishment and classroom to popular texts. It is then argued that some anime may be read as literature as some possess “literary standards”. This is demonstrated by showing the “literary tendencies” of the anime Puella Magi Madoka Magica, and by positioning the said anime in the context of the SHS Core Course called 21st Century Literatures from the Philippines and the World.


Keywords: Anime and Literature, popular culture, teaching literature






Justin Jose Louis R. Laput

Janelle Geronimo Vergara 

Philippine Normal University




This paper aims to unravel the ideologies in the evolution of the selected Philippine comics using the Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG).  It attempts to analyse and put in study some prominent comics to emphasize their importance with the help of the transitivity framework, which was developed by MAK Halliday who believes that a language’s system is shaped and influenced by the function it serves in its environment. Under the SFG, grammar is organized into three critical functions: interpersonal- which explains how a clause is an interaction; textual- which establishes how language builds information and context; and lastly experiential- how an expressed clause represents meaning. Through this, ideologies will be brought out. The researchers believe that making the ideologies alive will have a great impact in the present generation, for those are their history. Eagleton (1991) stated that “Ideology is a system of concepts and views which serves to make sense of the world while obscuring the social interests that are expressed therein, and by its completeness and relative internal consistency tends to form a closed system and maintain itself in the face of contradictory or inconsistent experience.” It aims to raise one’s awareness of comics as an important genre of literature, how they affect the people and reflect the universal themes, archetypes, and beliefs during the time of their prominence. This attempt is a step towards helping students and even the present generation understand how the language of a given text creates authenticity in fiction, and how powerful it is implying ideologies in a literary work like comics. This paper aims to illustrate how a reader can capture the elusive and subjective mind style of the author or the persona by attending to the author’s linguistic choices (Cunanan, 2011). After this study, it is believed that its impact will pave way to the 21st Century learners as they appreciate and understand more the relevance of comics in literature.  


Keywords: comics as literature, Systemic Functional Grammar, transitivity framework, Ideology






Ideology in five children’s stories about Martial Law and EDSA Revolt 1986


John Leihmar C. Toledo

University of the Philippines Los Baños




This paper analyzes the representation of two important periods in Philippine history, Martial Law and EDSA Revolt in 1986, in five stories for children from 2001 to 2013. These stories are categorized as picture books to children ages 3-14 years old or are taught as springboard pieces from Pre-School to Grade Seven. This study follows the framework of John Stephens (1992) where he pointed out three parts in reading ideology in children’s picture books: story, discourse, and significance. This study discovered how readers have been able to accept meanings in these story books that had latent or hidden signs of society and ideology. Five stories for children were analyzed according to discourse found in their narratives and according to representation in the illustrations or drawings that were included in the pages of these books. It will be surmised that there is indeed a gap in history that built the memory of Martial Law and EDSA 1986 as represented in children’s stories. These stories are still masked by grand narratives of history and indirectly signify a yellow discourse in Philippine politics. This study recommends the possibility of teaching Martial Law using these stories with a nuanced position, that there is conscious awareness on the contradiction of struggling political positions in history and not necessarily end up using these stories as tools for propaganda or historical revisionism.

Keywords: Martial Law, EDSA 1986, children’s stories, children’s literature, historical revisionism


A Moral-Philosophical Analysis of the Film "Honor Thy Father"


Ariel Perocho Alovera

Filamer Christian University




This study used the independent film entitled, Honor Thy Father, using moral-philosophical analysis. It presented the answers to different interpretations from the researcher, film critics, society’s standard, and Immanuel Kant’s principles of good will, moral worth, and duty based from his book “Categorical Imperatives” and “Kant’s Ethics” by Thomas E. Hill Jr. This study adopted the descriptive-qualitative research employing interpretive criticism. In its entirety, Honor Thy Father calls for moral philosophies focused on the three principles of Immanuel Kant: good will, moral worth, and duty. In its presentation of morality, it was able to touch the concepts of family, community, humanity, and even the most dreaded topic of many – religion. In general, Honor Thy Father unshackles the bitter sweet realities in the country and in the world as it tells a brilliant portrayal of some identified values. Indeed, Honor Thy Father succeeded in its purpose of bringing back to life the Edgar and Kaye in us that represent both the positive and the negative sides of our existence, the prejudice of our companions, and the ugly truth about society, yet putting into consideration the morals that seem evil but clothed by pure intention, and the other way around. Through this study, Values Education and Literature teachers would not only limit their horizon to reading stories and poetries, but to watching Filipino movies, especially independent films that have made history in the industry. It is the researcher’s fervent hope that this kind of analysis will be used more and more significantly.


Keywords: Moral-Philosophical, Film Analysis, Honor Thy Father, Moral Principles


Humanity Behind the Numbers: Discovering the National Trauma of Climate Change in the Philippines through Photographic Narratives in Agam


Lyka Marie B. Gumanay

Ateneo de Manila University




There are a multitude of studies regarding climate change that provide statistics and scientific researches in order to prove that the environment needs humanity’s help. Especially in the Philippines, one cannot help but feel its effects through the recurrent typhoons that have swept the nation and left destruction in its wake. However, these studies neglect to highlight the actual victims that have experienced tragedies and loss by these unpredictable weather conditions. And so, the Institute of Climate Change and Sustainable Cities’ recent book, Agam, is a revolutionary work of photographic narratives in the country because it directly studies the people as individuals, rather than just a part of a bigger whole. The focus would then be on the photographs and its accompanying narratives and how they represent the effects of climate change in the same way, or even more, than the numbers that scientific research delegates them to. This paper aims to study the literature of climate change using the theory of memory and trauma studies. In the age of the Anthropocene, it seems apt to study how man is also a geological power that affects the environment and what happens to it directly. Furthermore, the past discussion on climate change, according to the editor, Renato Constantino, is “wooden, dense, and constipating.” The people who are victimized by climate change are relegated to numbers and statistics. Agam gives these people a chance to show the nation that they are actually there living this disaster over and over again as more storms and other effects of climate change come to pass.

Keywords: photographic narrative, climate change, agam-agam, anthropocene





Hezekiah Louie R. Zaraspe

Miriam College Nuvali / University of Santo Tomas Graduate School



Poetry has had many definitions in its lengthy history. To critics Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren, poetry is simply defined as “a form of speech, or discourse, written or spoken” (Brooks, Jr. and Warren 1). To Jon Stallworthy, a poem “is a composition written for performance by the human voice” (Ferguson, Salter and Stallworthy 2027). For W. H. Auden, poetry is simply “memorable speech” (qtd. in Ferguson, Salter and Stallworth lix). In his Poetry as populism or pedestrianism: We’ll take it, Alfred Yuson quotes Jeanette Winterson saying, “Poetry occupies a different space to the humdrum. It is a way of renewing what words actually mean. It offers you a different way of looking at the world.” He ends the article by saying, “Poetry remains universal, whether as protest, populist entreaty, expressions of shallow sentiment, or pedestrian acceptance” (Yuson). This paper’s goal is to also attempt to draw out essential ideas and to better understand them through scholarly means, which would aid and equip literature teachers in the study of poetry. By rediscovering the Filipino through his contemporary poetry, one may be able to better understand what it means to be Filipino and human in this day and age. AA Patawaran’s said, “As an artist, you are a product of your time, and a reflection thereof” (Patawaran). Craig Teicher adds to this, saying that poets are “keepers of the unsayable” (Teicher). Since “poets have deliberately composed poems so convoluted that they evade the understanding of most ordinary human beings” (Leonard), it is a must that one equips one’s self in the study of poetry.


Keywords: poetry, Formalism, literature teaching, and defamiliarization





Clarissa Diaz-Apale

Davao City




This study aimed to discuss the concept of hope in the select short stories of Bienvenido

N. Santos, it explained the different processes of hope depicted from the select short stories; discussed how these processes of hope are delineated in the select short stories and how hope brings resolution to the conflicts experienced by the characters. The processes of hope is anchored from the theory of hope by Charles Snyder and supported by the idea of hope by Anthony Scioli and Shane Lopez. The researcher utilized the qualitative method, where it sought to tell the story of the particular character’s experiences and therefore focused on the description. Some of the main characters had leaded another way of resolving problems, resolution on the conflicts in the stories were resolved due to the contributing factors such as self-orientation and determination. Thus, not all of the characters go through with the processes of hope identified by Snyder. Hope gives the character’s courage to live courageously which it does not lead him to an escapist attitude, but to pursuit life in full dimension. Hope comes into the person’s life when difficulties are on sight and opens new possibilities in creating solutions. Educators may able to share the processes of hope depicted from the select short stories of Bienvenido N. Santos through teaching Philippine Literature. Scholars in the field of literature should conduct a similar study about hope that will give a better understanding about surviving in the midst of trials.


Keywords: hope, goal, agents, pathways, barrier, Bienvenido Santos




Regina Chriscel S. Delute 

(with Andrea E. Holgado)

Batangas State University




The study focused on the level of awareness of randomly selected respondents. The study used the descriptive method of research with a questionnaire, as the primary instrument in data collection. The respondents who answered the questionnaire were randomly selected 115 teachers and 128 students from junior high schools located in Batangas City. Qualitative means served well in gathering data pertinent to the status of Philippine mythology. The respondents’ knowledge of the selected stories was assessed based on the gathered Philippine mythology stories available in libraries, online sites, content curricula and stories using statistical tools such as, weighted mean, frequency and composite mean. Based on the gathered data for this study, only few books were found which have included Philippine mythology stories. More so, students and teachers are both moderately aware on creation stories, mythological characters, themes and archetypal symbol. It was also found out that there is a need for the teachers to attend different seminars and training relative to Philippine mythology because existing books are not enough for the teachers and students to integrate different activities that will attract students to learn Philippine mythology. It is found out that the books of the country’s mythology are hard to be obtained because of old publication year and books are mostly written in Visayan dialect. With these data, an electronic media such as and Facebook page were constructed to introduce young Filipinos to Philippine mythology through the Internet. It was recommended that the proposed website as an electronic media maybe evaluated to determine its effectiveness on teaching literature specifically Philippine mythology. The creation stories which are written in English maybe translated in Filipino to make the material understandable for the readers. If the translated texts were written on a book it is highly recommended to the Libraries to store more books about Philippine mythology to continuously raise the awareness of both students and teachers.


Keywords: mythology, Philippine mythology, Philippine literature






Ronald Hennessy C. Esguerra

Ateneo de Manila University

University of Santo Tomas




          In order to have a view of the tradition and culture of each country, it falls primarily under the realm of the Humanities. By saying such, it pertains to their philosophy, historical background and development, their oral and written tradition, and art. The Philippines possesses the quality of having a diverse and colorful tradition and culture just like its neighbouring countries. But as events in history has shown, the Philippines has experienced many changes and influences that are shown specifically on the way they write, speak, and create an artwork exhibited especially at the advent of the 20th century. Literature and the arts were made to communicate as they speak to their reader or spectator. Bearing that in mind, the focus of this paper is to have a philosophical criticism on the nature of the arts (the relationship within art’s trinity: the artist, the artwork, and the spectator) by having a close look at the aesthetics of representative works of Philippine contemporary literature that will at the same time serve as a window in showing the Filipino identity that is still embedded even up to the most recent works. The discussion in the paper is divided into three parts: first is on the transition of the Philippine tradition in writing and criticism, second is on the discourse on Philippine aesthetics by having a view on the selected representative works in English that is included in the anthology of this paper, and third is on the exposition on the importance of critical art and literary studies that serve as a treasure chest of the cultural heritage of a country. This, at the same time, will draw the reader back to the appreciation of the texts by Filipino writers in a society that is engulfed with pure Western and foreign preference.


Keywords: Aesthetics, Philippine Contemporary Literature, Filipino identity, Philippine Aesthetics


Ang Perspektibo ng Katotohanan sa Panitikan Tungo sa Ebolusyon ng Kalagayang Panlipunan ng Mga Pilipino sa Pilipinas


Angelo B. Barquilla

De La Salle, College of Saint Benilde, Antipolo




Layunin ng papel na ito ang bigyang-diin ang panitikan bilang espasyo ng mga interpersonal at intrapersonal na apekto sa mga manunulat ng impluwensyang umiiral sa isang partikular na panahon sa kasaysayan ng Pilipinas. Bukod dito ay bibigyang diin din sa pag-aaral ang perspektibo ng katotohanang hinuhubog ng apektong interpersonal at intrapersonal sa manunulat na humahamon sa kalagayang panlipunang kinahaharap sa partikular na panahon tungo sa pagpapatunay na ang panitikan bilang instrumento ng perspektibo ng katotohanan ng manunulat na may bisa sa ebolusyon ng kalagayang panlipunan ng mga Pilipino sa paglipas ng panahon. Inihahain ng papel na ito ang ebolusyon ng paglalapat ng katotohanan mula sa panitikan patungo sa lipunan mula sa mga panitikang umuusbong, tinatangkilik at binabasa ng mga kritiko at iba pa. Ang mga tungkulin ng panitikan mula sa iba’t ibang panahon hanggang sa kasalukuyan mula sa didaktikong paglalarawan nito sa papel ni Resil Mojares, sa paghahain ng perspektibo ni Efren Abueg ng ‘Langit sa Lupa’ bilang tagahain ng danas ni balagtas at interpersonal na apekto nito sa mismong akda. Ang paglalahad ng perspektibo sa realidad at ugnayan nito sa papel ni Rolando Tolentino, ang pagbibigay ng konsepto ni Corazon-Lalu Santosa sa Kambal na Disyerto patungo sa paglalahad ng realismo sa Nobelang Filipino ni U Z. Eliserio at pag-uugnay dito sa papel ni Ivan Emil Labayne na tumatalakay sa nobela ni Eros Atalia na Tatlong Araw Tatlong Gabi bilang representasyon ng mga kontemporanyong akda sa panahon. Ang mga kritikal na pagbasa at pagtingin sa mga panitikang ito gamit ang closed reading ang maghahain sa atin ng perspektibo sa katotohanan mula sa mga panitikan sa pamamagitan ng paglalarawan ng ebolusyon sa kalagayang panlipunan ng mga Pilipino sa Pilipinas. Mapatutunayan sa papel na ito na isang matibay na salik sa paglalahad ng projected truth ay ang kalagayang panlipunan ng mga Pilipino sa bansa ngunit mabibigyang katuwiran din na ang katotohanang inilalahad ng panitikan sa atin ay parsyal o hindi buo samakatuwid hindi lamang ang panitikan kikilos mismo sa lipunan ‘kundi ang intrapersonal at interpersonal na apekto mula sa manunulat, kritiko tungo sa lalim nito sa mambabasa at ang pagkagising ng mga mambabasa sa nilikhan nilang katotohan mula sa panitikan patungo sa pag-iral nito sa lipunang kinagagalawan.


Mga susing salita: panitikan, interpersonal at intrapersonal na apekto, perspektibo ng katotohanan, kalagayang panlipunan, manunulat, ebolusyon ng kalagayang panlipunan.






Jay M. Maravilla

Puerto Princesa City National Science High School




MIMAROPA seeks to have a literature of its own. Since the inception of DepEd K to 12 BEC and the inclusion of 21st Century Literature of the Philippines and the World as a Core Subject for Senior High School, teachers teaching the subject have been in quandary as to what to teach and how to teach the subject, knowing that Regionalism, Contextualization, and Indigenization must be taken into consideration, adding to the 21st Century time requirement of the subject. Other provinces and regions have been always familiar with their own literature, as embedded in their very own culture and tradition. The researcher feels that it is already time for MIMAROPA to get acquainted with its own literature. This Qualitative Action Research gathered 21st Century literature of MIMAROPA and produce a teaching module for the use of the teachers teaching the subject in region of MIMAROPA. The researcher was able to gather: 1 Creative non-fiction from Mindoro, Poetry from Marinduque and Romblon, 3 Blog entries, 1 flash fiction, and 1 short story from Palawan and Puerto Princesa City. These works have been published from 2000 to present in books and in the internet. The literary pieces were gathered through communications and interview from the different identified authors. After the literature was gathered, the researcher created the module using the paradigm in teaching Literature, F-R-E-E, as a guide in teaching the literary pieces. This module was disseminated and was tested by teachers across the region.


Keywords: MIMAROPA, regional literature, F-R-E-E






Honeylet L. Alerta

Colegio San Agustin Makati




The teaching of 21st century literature to senior high school students using the interdisciplinary approach has not been fully exploited to heighten the relevance of literature to the “generation Z” in the Philippines.  Using descriptive- developmental research design, the study ventured on evaluating the effectiveness of using interdisciplinary performance tasks in enhancing the senior high school students’ literary competence, and in heightening the relevance of 21st Century Literature to the emerging social issues by connecting the socially-relevant contexts reflected in the literary texts to other core subjects, namely Philosophy of Man, Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Regions, and Media and Information Literacy. Findings indicated that students have an above average level of identifying and explaining the relevance of the various socially-relevant contexts found in literature and connecting it to the other core subjects taught to them in the same semester. Meanwhile, the mapping of the competencies of the indicated core subjects that led to creating synergized performance tasks proved to have a positive correlation between the literary skills and the 7 C’s of 21st century skills in performing the performance tasks.  The study served three-fold: first, it strengthens the teacher’s competence on bridging the gap between what the curriculum demands and what the available learning materials lack; second, it allows fellow Literature teachers on creating opportunities to collaborate with other core subjects taught in the senior high school, and last, for the students to ensure the enhancement of their literary competence.


Keywords: 21st Century Literature, Interdisciplinary Performance Task, socially-relevant contexts



Nang Mauso ang Uso: Isang Pagsipat sa Panitikang Popular – Fan Fictions


Ester  Camille   B. Barquilla

Philippine Science High School – Main Campus




Ang mga kabataan ang isa sa mga unang nagpapalaganap  ng  uso.  Kaakibat  ng  mga kabataang  ito  ang  interes  na  kanilang   nire-review  o  binabalik-balikan.   Kung  mahilig   halimbawa sa isang uri ng akda, pelikula, palabas, musika atbp.,  pag-uusapan nila  ang  bawat  galaw  at ganap nang hilig na iyon. Kanilang ipakikita ang maganda sa hindi tungkol sa kinahihiligang ito  upang mabigyang babala ang mga susunod na manunuod o mambabasa. Sa ganito pumapasok ang mga panitikong bahagi ng mga ‘fandom’, ang pag-usbong  ng Fan  Fiction.  Ang  fan  fiction  ay  isang paraan ng pagsulat ng mga tagahanga (fans)  kung  saan ang  kanilang  kwento  o  likha  ay batay  sa mga tauhan na kanilang nakikita o iniidolo, batay sa kanilang hilig na akda,  palabas,  pelikula  at/o musika. Dito nila inilalagay ang mga pag-uusap tungkol sa objek ng kanilang pagkakapanatisimo. Sa pamamagitan  ng  paglalantad  sa  kanilang  komunidad,  tinangkang  ilahad  nito ang kulturang nabubuo at umiiral sa ganitong uri ng panitikan. Ano ba ang ipinalalagay na ugnayan  ng gantong uri ng panitikan at nang espasyong kanilang kinabibilangan. Sapagkat nasasalamin  ng  fan fiction ang mga katangian ng kasali rito, gayundin  ang  komunidad  na  kinabibilangan  nito.  Hindi lamang ito nagiging isang uri ng komunikasyon kung hindi pag-aarko ng iba’t ibang uri ng mga pangyayari at iba pang kultural na kaganapan. Nagiging mas mahalaga ang papel ng  mga  kabataan kahit sa labas ng akademya sapagkat  mayronng ideolohiyang namamayani at sumisiil sa ibang ideolohiya at nagpapaunlad sa interes ng isang pangkat.


Mga Susing Salita: Panitikang Popular, Uso, Fan Fiction





Ma. Izella D. Lampos 

(with Honey Grace R. Galla)

Philippine National Research Center for Teacher Quality




Women constitute approximately half of all migrants at around 95 million (Immigration, 2008). The increasing number of female migrants raise the question of whether women’s migration to work overseas is an empowerment or a form of oppression. This research was conducted to study the role of women in Philippine migration and determine the mindset of Filipino women towards women empowerment, gender roles and domestic labor by analyzing The Mango Bride (2013) by Marivi Soliven, a novel that tackles issues relating to women oppression and migration. The researchers conducted a Marxist-feminist analysis of the issues on migration and representation of women shown in the book to trace the formation of a feminist mindset. Theories of sexual division of labor, difference in the class struggles of women, and commodification of women were employed in the study. Three main mindsets on how women view other women or themselves in the context of migration and how it affects their decision were formed: ‘Migration is an evidence of the sexual division of labor’; ‘The struggles of female migrants vary from class to class’; and ‘Migration can be used by the patriarchy and capitalism to commodify women’. These, together with other findings, led to the conclusion that female migrants were represented in the novel as oppressed and struggling against the role given to them by patriarchy and capitalism. Social class is a factor that affects the struggles of female migrants. The experiences of female migrants on migration vary because of their different goals, reasons and purpose as bourgeois and proletariat women. These struggles experienced by female migrants affect their way of thinking towards women empowerment, gender roles, and domestic labor. Ultimately, the mindset that aside from being an opportunity, migration can be viewed as a form of oppression to women, was concluded from the study.

Keywords: Marxism, Feminism, migration




Identifying the Concept of Self and Identity Formation in Hermann Hesse’s Siddharta Through Althusser’s Ideological State Apparatuses and Latour’s Actor-Network Theory


Abygail P. Magbag 

PAREF Woodrose School




In history, the identity of the East has always been in the context of the West and the dichotomy of these two is as literary as it is historical. Postmodernism continues to deconstruct ancient Eastern beliefs, particularly that off Buddhism, on the concept of identity and identity formation. The East and the West both view language as an imperfect and subjective means of communication incapable of conveying “identity”. While European literature puts emphasis on individualism, Buddhism in the East clears the illusion of individuality and further promotes compassion toward other beings. The redefinition of ideology made by Althusser has an important underpinning in literature and criticism. Althusser defined ideology as “a representation of the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence”. Individuals are perceived as always-ready subjects and that they act in and inconformity to a system. It is through ideology which functions in form as and in material experiences (ISAs) which transforms individual to “ideological subjects” within the society. Furthermore, he asserts that since we live in ideology, there is no means of escaping or exempting oneself. Nothing happens to be without ideology and that ideology influences how we seek to understand and establish identities as individuals. Meanwhile, Bruno Latour’s “Reassembling Social” is an attack on modern sociology and on how it assumes that such a thing as ‘society’ exists to be studied. Latour makes the claim that it does not. He further defines society, “as a concept, a premature assemblage of entities”. The existence of Western individualism should be carefully studied and analyze in novels exploring Eastern beliefs. The concept of self and identity formation needs to be studied in a European discourse of an eastern narrative and explore whether traditional Eastern concept of self and identity formation can be read in European’s postmodernity. This paper is aimed at analyzing the East and West encounter as shown in Siddhartha and the heightened awareness that social constructs lead to the binary distinctions of self and others.


Keywords: self; identity formation; identity





April Joy A. Gapi

Camburanan National High School




The purpose of study was to unveil the critical analysis and inter-textual relationships of the three legendary literary pieces about love. This study displayed the elucidation of Christopher Marlowe’s “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love,” Elizabeth Barrett-Browning’s “How Do I Love Thee,” and Jose La Villa Tierra’s “Ballad of a Mother’s Heart” using John Lye’s Critical Analysis of Poetry in twelve elements of poetry namely: Genre, Voice, Thesis, Structure, Setting, Imagery, Key Statement, Sound, Language Used, Qualities that evoke the reader, and Ideology. It adopted the descriptive-qualitative research, using content analysis as a specific method of interpretation before the critical comparative analysis was done. The contemporary social implications were formulated after every identified social issue related to the selected literary pieces. The result of the study showed that two of the chosen poems have the same genre. “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love” and “How Do I Love Thee” were both lyric poems which portrayed romantic love. The “Ballad of a Mother’s Heart” belonged to a narrative poem because it told a story. All the poems spoke about love however, different types of love were shown. The first two poems were written in formal form because the thoughts were arranged in stanzas and were direct in making its meaning. On the other hand, the Ballad of a Mother’s Heart is in thematic structure, and used repetitions, however, it was indirect in making its meaning. The time the three poems were written was concrete. Symbolisms were commonly used. On the other hand, only Marlowe’s and La Villa Tierra’s poems had double meanings. There were allusions used in poems that tell about love which showed different ideologies. The Passionate Shepherd about love drew courtship and romanticism while “How Do I Love Thee” showed true, pure, and eternal love. “Ballad of a Mother’s Heart” showed facts about a mother’s love. In the critical comparative analysis, only the seven elements were used. In addition, contemporary social implications about technology invasion for “The Passionate Shepherd to His Love,” violence against women for “How Do I Love Thee,” and abortion for “Ballad of a Mother’s Heart” were identified. 

Keywords: Critical Analysis, Elements of Poetry







Edsel R. Alapag

Malinao School for Philippine Craftsmen-Department of Education




This qualitative research analysed and interpreted the selected Aklanon poems of Melchor F. Cichon into social, political, economic, and psychological perspectives. The descriptive content analysis was utilized using Feminist Critical Approach. The data were generated from the excerpts of poems, interviews, and narrative accounts. One of the major findings is that Filipino women have different images depending on her social milieu, political affiliation, economic status, and psychological experiences. The images of Filipino women are as follows: in social perspective, the frail weakling; the alluring temptress; the femme fatale; the innocent victim; the sex slave; the deviant revolutionist; the soulful nurturer; and the silent conformist. Whilst in political perspective, the damsel in distress; the submissive woman; the tough amazon; the abused lass; the champion crusader; the assertive activist; the deprived mother; and the aggrieved wife. In the economic perspective, the unemployed sage; the flesh trader; the wise woman; the disadvantaged teenager; the meager civilian; the leading matriarch; the in-need mother; and the tame homemaker. In the psychological perspective, the wishful daughter; the helpless whore; the strong woman; the wounded child; the wounded warrior; the independent woman; the afflicted mother; and the martyr wife.  Furthermore, the following inherent oppressions were seen: being unemployed; being a prostitute; being stereotyped as typecast; being sexually assaulted; being a sex slave; being politically threatened; being abandoned by own children; and being confined to societal norms. In most instances, some of the literary characters have fought and revolutionized against the entrenched unwritten societal roles imposed on them. Nevertheless, there are still portrayals that seemed disturbing. Hence, the selected Aklanon poems have paved way for the resurfacing and reassessment of Filipino women’s roles and images in Philippine society.


Keywords: Feminist, images, critical approach, Filipino women